Sunday, September 14, 2014

Knitting Calculaton|| Single joursey production Calculation

Hello guys, What about you? hope that well. ok today we discuss about how to calculate fabric production per hour or per day in Knitting  machine and obiviously that be single joursey fabric. ok i will show you two system to calculate the production...

For calculate production per hour or per day we need to have the following data....
Machine Gauge
Machine Dia in inches
Number of Feeders
Machine RPM
Yarn Count
Stitch length in mm

As a example we have the following data..

 Machine Gauge 28
Machine Dia 30 inches
Number of Feeders 96
Machine RPM 26
Yarn Count 30
Stitch length 4 mm
Efficiency 90%

 Then first system of calculation is......
First we will calculate number of needles and number of stitches produced in one revolution. This would help us in calculating the total length of yarn consumed in one revolution.
Number of needles = machine dia * gauge *(3.14)
                          = 30*28*3.14
                          = 2637.6
                          =2637 (As needles are always in even number)

Every needle is making one stitch on every feeders because machine is producing single jersey fabric (full knit fabric).
Number of stitches produced in one revolution = Number of needles * number of feeders
                                                      = 253152
This figure shows that machine is making 203400 stitches in one revolution.

Length of stitch is 04 mm (stitch length is always calculated in metric system)
From this figure we can calculate yarn consumption in yards in one hour
Yarn Consumption (in yards) in one hour
= number of stitches * length of (mm) * RPM *60 (minutes)/
1000(to convert mm into meters)

= 1579688 meter or 1721860 yards

Weight of cotton yarn = length of yarn Count/count * 840
                          =68.32 pounds
                          =68.32/2.2046kg = 31
   Efficiency 90% so actual production is 27.9 kg in per hour and we can calculate per day production or per shift production by multipi the value with 24 or 8.

And now the 2nd system is more easier and more short...
Length of yarn =3.14*Machine Gauge*Machine Dia in inches*Number of Feeders *Machine RPM *Stitch length in mm*Hour*Efficiency/1000*100

So length =3.14*28*30*96*26*4*60*90/1000*100
           =1422025 meter

we know that Ne*tex=590.6 

So Tex= 590.6/ne   Tex=590.6/30=19.68 Tex

Now 1km weigth=19.68 gm
so 1422.025km weight= 27994.23 gm
                           =27.99 kg
Now we can calculate per day production or per shift production by multipi the value with 24 or 8.
 Ok guys.Thank you all for reading my article.

Tuesday, June 3, 2014

All about THEN-AIRFLOW® dyeing machine|| Air flow dyeing process

For hundreds of years, water, which is a precious human resource, has been the most important element in textile finishing. Water has been used in large quantities for fabric dyeing.
A step in the opposite direction was taking place in 1979. The THEN Research and Development department asked itself the question how the enormous volumes of water required for piece dyeing could be reduced along with the related energy costs.

This rethink commenced with the development of the THEN-AIRFLOW ® technology, which already faced the fact that even though water had served as a transport medium in the past; it was and is still today not available everywhere in sufficient quantities. 
However, water is today an even more expensive medium. The answer to this is the new THEN-AIRFLOW® SYNERGY. This model offers previously unattainable economic and ecological advantages.
Simple Mechanism:
The patented aerodynamic system is based on the principle that the fabric transport is effected by air only, which means that as opposed to a hydraulic dyeing machine, no dye liquor or aqueous medium is required to transport the fabric. The fabric is constantly in motion from loading to the batch end, even during the discharge and filling processes. 
The THEN aerodynamic system
Let the Air Flow
The patented aerodynamic system is  based on the principle that the fabric transport is effected by air only, which means that as opposed to a hydraulic dyeing machine, no dye liquor or aqueous medium is required to transport the
fabric. The fabric is constantly in motion from loading to the batch end, even during the discharge and filling processes.
No Limits
 Knits and woven fabrics from light up to heavy weight and virtually any fibre or fibre blend can be bleached and dyed without machine modifications or changes. The modular system of the THENAIRFLOW ® SYNERGY allows taylor made machine configurations, which guarantees maximum efficiency.

Proven Success
Several hundred plants in successful operation around the world document the reliability and economy of this dyeing system, which is based on aerodynamic principles.

The aerodynamic original

1. Aerodynamic transport. Economical, frequency controlled blower.

2.Safe fabric transport. Optimum displacement and minimum crease formation are
ensured by the aerodynamic drive.

3. Active fabric running control. This facilitates slip regulation, the exact monitoring of the fabric speed and protective fabric handling.

4. Unique rinsing method. Short processing times with excellent rinsing through
spraying with fresh water.

5. Maximum dyeing safety. Aerodynamic fabric transport enables dyeing processes
in a saturated steam atmosphere.

6. Optimised fabric storage. Smooth plaiting guarantees excellent fabric displacement.

7. Dye liquor and fabric separation. PTFE slide bottom ensures maximum gliding
and protection of the fabric surface.

8. Liquor sump. The “Self Cleaner” filter system ensures a lint-free surface and
reduces the setting times between batches.

The outstanding advantages are:
  • Unlimited flexibility with regard to all fibres (except pure wool) and fabrics weight classes between 50–800 g/m.
  • The lowest liquor ratio on the market: man-made fibres approx. 1:2, natural fibres 1:3 to 1:4, depending on the article and structure.
  • Energy savings of approx. 40% compared to hydraulic jet-dyeing machines.
  • A reduction in the overall process time of around 25%.
  • The most advanced piece-dyeing machine available today. Providing a competitive edge through the lowest available processing costs.
  • Lowest water consumption and ­effluent represent an ecologically sound solution.
THEN-One step leveller ®
The dyeing liquor consisting of dyestuff and the dyeing chemicals will be prepared
in the enlarged 1st addition tank, and the dry salt in the salt dissolving tank. By the
help of the circulation between the addition tank and the salt dissolving tank, the
salt will be dissolved and mixed with the dyestuff.   
 In a single “all in” process phase, the premixed liquor containing dyestuff,  chemicals
and salt is applied evenly and fully automatically to the fabric in only one cycle,
followed by a migration time of 10–15 minutes.
Alkali, which is prepared in the 2nd addition tank, will be metered, depending on the dyestuff and the dyestuff combination between 30–45 minutes, followed by a fixation time of approx. 20 minutes.
This fully automatically guided and controlled sequence at the highest process
technology level, results in a considerable shortening of the dyeing process and
excellent reproducibility.
THEN-Time saver ®
The “THEN-Time saver ®” has an effect on all the process phases downstream of
dyeing: Massive timesavings being achieved through the effective use of the unique
THEN-AIRFLOW ® “Direct Rinse” method in combination with the “Power Rinse” process. Precisely matching components are increasing these time savings even further.

The most important ones are:
The volume of pre-heated rinsing water (60 °C) per time unit can be programmed
and is matched to the need for the rapid washing off of chemicals and hydrolysed
dyestuff. Observation takes place via a through fl ow measurement device, which
ensures that optimum rinsing is achieved. An optional hot water tank ensures that
sufficient rinsing water is available at the right temperature.
“Volmedos” facilitates extremely, exact dyestuff and chemical dosing via a control circuit with through flow measurement device and control valve.

The intelligent THEN-DYNET ® control unit consists of a Windows ® PC with touch
screen and a main control unit (MCU).
On the one hand, in network operation, the control system can access the control
station data and, on the other hand, the complete control system can also be

operated from the control station.
Batch processing is shown in real time. Apart from the set and actual values of the
machine, defects and manual interventions by the operator are also registered.
Self cleaning filter
The self cleaning fi lter system ensures a lint-free surface and greatly reduces the
setting times between batches. As opposed to conventional fi lters, which can only
be cleaned manually, the self cleaning fi lter system continually keeps itself clean.
The lint is washed away automatically at the end of the process.

THEN-Hot drainer
The THEN-AIRFLOW ® SYNERGY allows a drain at temperatures of over 95 °C while the fabric is in motion. This is possible after pre-bleaching and dyeing and results
In time savings of 15–30 minutes. In the case of polyester fabrics, oligomers contamination can be removed efficiently.

THEN-Flexport ®
The dyeing of narrow fabrics is no problem. The “THEN-Flexport ®” is a separate
chamber with variable loading for cuffs and collars. The “THEN-Flexport ®” is controlled entirely autonomously. Both the speed via the winch and transport nozzles, as well as the quantity of injected liquor, are independently regulated on the basis of differing rope lengths and the chamber load. Consequently, these articles can also be dyed with identical shades in the same machine

Spectra dyeing
A simple modification of the THEN-AIRFLOW ® SYNERGY machine using the
SPECTRA module allows the creation of a wealth of effects, e.g. multicolour, rainbow
and batik shading. During the SPECTRA process, liquor circulation is interrupted
once the fi xing conditions have been reached. Dye application takes place rapidly
via the special SPECTRA nozzles. The designs appear to be original.

Models and technical specifications

AIRFLOW ®             50         250      500    750     1000    1500

Dimension A [mm] 4000      4300    4300   4300   4300    4300

Dimension B [mm] 3370      3580    3580   3580   3580    3580

Dimension C [mm] 4320       4800   6400   8100   9650    12500

Dimension D [mm] 4000       4550   4620    4750   4900    5250

Dimension E [mm] 4000        5150  5500   5650    6150    6350

Dimension F [mm]  5500       5700   6000   6200   6500    7300

Recent development and new model: THEN-AIRFLOW® SYNERGY G2
Ongoing further development forms a major
element in Companies corporate philosophy. Therefore, they are able to present
the SYNERGY G2 dyeing machine, which apart from a high load per strand also provides further, sizeable reductions in water and energy consumption. In other words, the SYNERGY G2 is a top product from both a cost-efficiency and ecological standpoint.

A number of decisive changes to the design of the fabric storage chamber have led to an increase in load to a maximum of 300 kg per chamber which is equivalent to an increase of 20%.

The SYNERGY G2 slashes the process time, which is seen as a cost-efficiency benchmark, by a record-breaking low values.
- Cotton reactive medium shade 225 min - 3¾ h
- CO/PES medium shade 327 min ~ 5½ h

The SYNERGY G2 further reduces water consumption by 20% and at the same time provides corresponding energy savings.

In tandem with an unaltered basic design, the increased payload of the SYNERGY G2 results in another marked reduction in the nominal liquor ratio: CO 1:3.3 ; PES 1:1.5

The SYNERGY G2 furnishes unsurpassed reproducibility and “right first time” dyeing rates of up to 98%.

No other piece dyeing machine on the market can successfully and economically dye such a wide range of fabrics.

SYNERGY G2 represents the 2nd generation
   • with significant increase in loading
   • resulting in the highest productivity and
   • the ability to process the widest range of fabrics
   • with lowest water and energy consumption.

SYNERGY G2 - an ecological sound solution!

Sunday, April 6, 2014

Eco Friendly Textiles Fibers|| Green Textile|| Organic textile Fibers and their use.

                                      Green Textiles/Eco Friendly textile fibers is a new word for  a
 textile engineer or technologist. Minimizing impact of textiles to the environment, during textile production & processing, is the main object of Eco Friendly textile. It is a new concept of green economy. A lot of research goes on textile dyeing process on the aspect of green environment. But unfortunately, there have no remarkable research on fibre & fabrics. Here I want discuss about different kind of eco friendly textile fibers. At first we want to know what is eco friendly textile fibers or organic fibers?
 Organic fibers production is a system of growing cotton without synthetic chemical fertilizers, herbicides, conventional synthetic insecticides, growth regulators, growth stimulator, boll openers or defoliants. It is a system that contributes to healthy soils and/or people. The organic system promotes enhanced biological activity, encourages sustainability and commands proactive management of production. Now we discuss about different kind of fibers that can cultivate in organic system.
Organic Cotton: Organic cotton is grown using methods and materials that have a low impact on the environment. Organic production systems replenish and maintain soil fertility, reduce the use of toxic and persistent pesticides and fertilizers, and build biologically diverse agriculture. Organic cotton is grown and processed without toxic chemicals that can be absorbed easily when in contact with the user's skin. Pesticides, fertilizers and chemicals used to grow and process conventional cotton fabrics may go directly to the users blood stream, which consequently affects the body's organs and tissues.
Organic Cotton and Organic Wool.

Organic wool: Insecticides are used to control mange, mites, lice, files, and other pests on sheep herds. In order to be certified livestock need to feed on natural vegetation matter with bio fertilizers, cleaning agents and natural insecticides. In order to wool to be certified as “organic,” it must be produced in accordance with federal standards for organic livestock production.
Improved properties:
Excellent insulation and thermal properties.
Excellent softness and absorbency.
Organic Silk: Organic silk or vegetarian silk is made from the cocoons of wild and semi-wild silk months of India and China. In its production the pupae are not stifled or killed to obtain reeled yarn but the open-ended cocoons are spun into yarn.
Improved properties
    Greater degree of fiber purity, resulting in better yarn luster and uniformity than normal spun silk.
 Since the fiber is spun, it has better fiber strength and durability.
Hemp: Few pesticides or fertilizers are used to cultivate organic hemp. It requires far less fertilizers and pesticides than most commercial crops. Eco friendly substitute of linen.
Hemp’s extraordinary qualities: it helps in conditions soil, clear noxious weeds, 3 times the tensile strength of cotton, stain resistant, mould and bacteria restant, moth and silverfish resistant, fire and heat resistant.
Seacell: this fiber is derived from wood pulp and seaweed (algae) that, according to its manufacturer Smart fiber AG, actually diffuses its protective and anti-inflammatory properties into the skin, stimulating the metabolism. It's like your clothes are living! Totally intriguing. We've never tried it ourselves. This Seacell Emotion Matters gets into the details a little more, like how it's "a mattress whose removable cover contains microscopic particles of marine algae fiber that aid in cellular regeneration."
Lenpur: this biodegradable fabric is made from white pine tree clippings, and "offers the comfort of silk, the touch of cashmere and the lightness of linen." Lenpur's website states that it's a cut above the other cellulose fibers due to its softness, its absorption capacity and ability to release dampness, and its ability to sustain a higher thermal range —thus keeping you cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.
Lyocell: this fiber is made from biodegradable wood pulp using chemical-free processes. Non-toxic solvents are used in its production and then recycled, creating a manufacturing process with very little byproduct. (However, it sounds like it still uses a ton of energy, so it's not perfect.) It can be blended with other fibers to create fabrics like SeaCell (Lyocell and Seaweed, shown above) and Hempcel (Lyocell and Hemp).
Soysilk: this lesser known 100% biodegradable eco friendly fabric is made from tofu-manufacturing waste. Soy protein is liquefied and then stretched into long, continuous fibers that are cut and processed like any other spinning fiber. Because soy has high protein content, the fabric is very receptive to natural dyes, so there's no need for synthetic dyes.
Stingplus Nettle Fabric: Get ready for it... the buzz is that this fabric may be the most sustainable fabric ever. The fabric is woven from the stinging nettle, which "produces a uniquely strong, soft and naturally fire retardant textile fibre" and, blended with pure new wool, it is "the ultimate environmental upholstery solution." The 100% Design Exhibition in London awarded Camira Fabrics, the manufacturer of STING plus, the 2008 Award for Sustainable Product Design. The fabric is also made with metal-free dyes and is certified to be biodegradable within 28 days.

There are some other Fibers like Bamboo, Pineapple leaf fibers, Banana Leaf fibers. Regenerated bottle into polyester fiber.

Banana Tree Fibers
Bamboo Fibers
Reasons for organic cotton production
There are many harmful chemicals that people do not know about. Twelve of these chemicals are known as persistent organic pollutants or POPs, which are the most hazardous of all man-made products or wastes that cause deaths, birth defects and diseases among humans and animals. They are so dangerous that 120 nations agreed at a United Nations Environment Programmer conference to outlaw them. Of the 151 signatories to the convention 98 states have ratified it; sadly the United States and Russia have not yet done so. There are three of those chemicals used in cotton manufacturing. The following are the main factors responsible for organic cotton production:
Chemical Names
 Agri. Use 
Human Toxicity 
Environ.   Toxicity 
Brain and fetal damage, impotence, sterility.
Bees, birds, crustaceans,&mollusks
Birth defects, cancer.
Bees, birds, crustaceans, & fish.
Mites,   insecticide.
Cancer, reproductive damage, tumors
Aquatic insects, birds, & fish
Plant growth regulator
Birds, bees, crustaceans, & fish.
Chemical Name
 Agri. Use 
Human  Toxicity
Environ.   Toxicity
Metam Sodium
Insects, nematodes, fungus, weeds.
Birth defects, fetal damage, mutations
Bees & fish.
Methyl Parathion
Birth defects, fetal damage, reproductive & immune system.
Birds, bees, crustaceans, & fish.
Insecticide & miticide.
Eye damage, skin irritant.
Birds, bees, & fish.
Bone marrow, kidney, liver, testicular damage.
Bees, birds, crustaceans, fish, & mollusks.

Chemical Name
 Agri. Use 
Human Toxicity
Environ.   Toxicity
Cancer, Fetal & eye damage, mutations, tumors.
Bees, birds, crustaceans, & fish.
Sodium Chlorate
Leaf drop & weeds.
Kidney damage & methemoglobinemia
Birds & fish.
Leaf drop.
Cancer, tumors.
Birds & fish.
Cancer, fetal damage, teratogen, suspect mutagen.
Amphibians, aquatic insects, bees, birds, crustaceans, & fish.
Why people Want to use Organic Fibers?
Advantage of Bamboo fiber product.
  • Concern for the environment: Fertilizers and pests applied to the soil, but all the chemicals are not taken up by the cotton plant. Some elements are released into the environment while others leach into the soil and also pollute water.
  • Concern for family health: Danger of Insecticide inhalation by the spray men during back mounted manual spraying without any protective equipment.
  • Lifestyle: Some people were interested in insecticide free cotton apparel due to allergies.
  • To reduce input prices: Insecticide use changed the insect complex in many countries. Some minor insects became major and certain new insects were introduced. Consequently, there was an increase in the consumption of insecticides.


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